Colonialism from the root means to seek prosperity, to willing prosperity. In political terms, the domination of a strong country over a weak country in order to use the natural resources and wealth of the country under the pretext of creating prosperity.
The political application of the term colonialism specifically refers to the methods of authoritarian behavior of politically capable countries, such as some Western countries with dependent territories. Colonialism is mostly the work of countries whose maritime empires and soil inaccuracies prevent the formation of an integrated political unit, such as land empires.
The concept of colonialism today is fully linked to the concept of imperialism, and colonialism is essentially the work of imperialist powers, a power that wants to invade its national and ethnic borders and dominate other lands, nations and ethnicities.
Although colonialism has an ancient history, the history of its new concept begins in the 16th and 17th centuries.The history of colonialism from ancient times can be divided into four periods, the first three periods, collectively known as ancient colonialism, and the fourth period is known as new colonialism.
Ancient Colonization is the first period of colonization in the world. The history of colonialism begins with the Phoenician invasion of the shores of the Mediterranean.
The second period of colonialism globally occurred in the 15th and 16th centuries The Italian colonies ended a period of colonial history, the center of which was the Mediterranean, and since then the history of colonialism has become on the atlantic-Indian axis, then the Pacific Ocean. It is from this period that European influence spreads in the non-European world. The discovery of the Continental United States prompted major European governments (Spain, Portugal, France, England, the Netherlands) to seize the continent’s newly discovered territories, beginning with a new colonialism and the formation of a new empire.
From this time on, France, England and the Netherlands entered the field following Spain and Portugal, providing several colonies and a commercial labour market in North America, the West Indies, the Coasts of Africa and Asia.
After that period, colonial wars began, and several wars between European countries led to the colonization. England fought to seize over trade in the African and Indian banks with France, and finally, the French colonies in the regions a lot was placed under the supervision of the UK. 17th century was the period of accelerated growth of colonial politics, and two factors played a major and decisive role in the victories of colonial rule, one was the navy’s power to destroy rivals, and the other, to produce or provide industrial goods to carry to colonies by ship.17th-century Spain did not have both, and the Netherlands did not compete with France and England, and as a result, the two governments became the preeminent colonial states. This period of colonial history ended in the late 18th century.
The third colonial period in the world, began in 19th and 20th centuries with The growth of economic trade led to the Industrial Revolution and transformed the economic and political foundations of the colonial countries, and the exploitation of colonial resources increased further, and these lands became raw material sources for the industrialized countries’ industries and the market for their products. The period of European revolutions was accompanied by a wave of freedom of the colonies. The United States of America (the former British colony in North America) took the lead, followed by the revolutions and freedom movements in Central and South America, which had been destroyed the colonization of Spain and Portugal.
The early years of the 19th century were accompanied by the development of British colonies in Canada and the creation of new colonies in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand. The great migrations that occurred in the middle of this century and the increasing demand of industrial England for food and raw materials made these colonies a great dominion whose governments were semi-independent. At the same time, British business interests developed the government’s oversight of the tropics and established the “subordinate colonies” under the supervision and administration of the British Ministry of Colonies.
America; A colony that itself became a colonizer in the last quarter of the 19th century, rose once again due to the growth of industry and capitalism, and as a result, the scope of French influence in North Africa was extended, and this government dominated and supervised large parts of North Africa. Gradually, the division of African lands between colonial states became endemic, and eventually, new types of colonies were found as protectors and spheres of influence. The conflict over the Pacific Islands and the establishment of trade settlements in China, which were accompanied by recent events, made the United States a new colonial state on the scene of colonial conflict. World War I balanced the division of colonies, while adding a new type of colony to previous types, which was the “land under supervision. “The emergence of national movements in Asia and Africa, especially after World War II, ended europe’s colonial rule over many of the territories of these two continents, and today, except for a few small regions on these two continents, there is no colony in its old sense.
New colonialism is a concept that is used in ways that, after the old colonial era, are used to dominate countries economically and politically.
Along with the post-World War II developments and the denial of the possibility of colonizing countries directly and colonially, new policies were applied under the title of new colonialism, and classical colonial practices ended. This includes methods such as single-productization of Third World countries, foreign investments by rich countries, etc.
Entering new social, economic and political thoughts into the regions Colony and expansion of anti-colonial movements were important factors in ending traditional colonialism. Ancient colonialism, after the coming out of its military forces and known agents from the colonies, brought its interests in these areas to power by bringing domestic sympathizers to supplies.
The growth of capitalist economy and the export of capital to exploit the resources of other lands brought the economic relations of exploitative industrialized countries into a new phase with small countries, so that industrialized countries, through the export of capital and the global mechanism of prices and the trade of raw materials with goods made and political and economic pressures, exploit low-growth countries, and this relationship has taken the title of “new colonialism” (neocolonialism) and many have taken advantage of the low-growth countries. It has provoked small and newly liberated nations against this kind of political and economic relationship.
The “neo-colonial” method causes weak countries to remain or even back in the early stages of economic growth, despite their true or outward political independence, and in contrast, advanced countries make huge profits from exploiting their resources and through economic trade.
Colonialism was born in the western lands, but this illegitimate child also grew up in the Orient. The presence of colonists in the Middle East was due to the soft and greasy morsels of natural resources, which never caused to seize the pitched battle of Colonialism-hyenas from these regions.
The United States on the front line and the United Kingdom behind the colonization of the region, by examining how the United Kingdom is present in the region and identifying its movements in different time periods, can be designed a general and powerful strategy to counter colonial movements, and to this point, paying major and accurate attention to this point. its believed that England’s interest in regional domination had not only diminished, but the old colonialist had prepared new plans for greater domination of the region. This country is currently in Iraq and Afghanistan present, has turned Greedy eyes to other free countries in the region and tries to destroy them.
Of course, it should be noted that in this new game, England mostly plays the role of the trail and behind the scene, and America is the tip of the attack and the shield of the scourge of England, As new plans become more complex and deadlocked, it skillfully withdraws, leaving the United States alone in the midst of crises and among its enemies.
In the new colonial style of colonialism from the awakening and spontaneous revolution of the right nations, They take advantage of the atmosphere and confiscate the achievements of their revolutionary movements for their own benefit. Therefore, it has been observed that the movements of a country have been supported by Western imperialism and have deviated from the entire course of the revolution.
This is the newest form of colonialism that inflicts fragile blows on the body of human resources and the political destiny of the new governments after the revolution. In fact, a puppet will come to power and because of the people’s Unrecognization of the arena, and by their own hands, and then the most bad fate for the target country will be determined. Wearing the uniform of defending and pretending to defending the interests of the people is the task of the new colonialists.